Some attempt atsynthesis can be found in Hose and Carter. As we saw above at n. This is a good explanation simultaneous preparationin the case of adjoining books with closely related themes is not surprising , and hissuggestion 60 of some simultaneous preparation for the Mithridatic Wars and BC 1 alsosounds reasonable see the next note. In BC 3, Magnino Bucherdevelopments in order principally to instruct or divert the reader. Perhaps 82See Pflaum , Luce Appiano e la storia delle guerre civili.

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In fact, simultaneous preparation, already suggested forthe Spanish History and Hannibalic War, and the Mithridatic Wars and BC 1,might have taken place elsewhere. This is important, because hisfeelings of self-worth and validation—robust enough to prompt anautobiography—were intimately connected with the Empire; accordingly, hissense of worth and, no less significantly, his esteem in the eyes of others had tostand or fall with their positive or negative evaluations of the Empire and theirwillingness to credit the ability and fitness of individual Emperors to confervalidation and honor.

Just as surely, he prided himself on his high originsin the chief cultural center of the Empire.

The Origins, Program, and Composition of Appian’s Roman …

For which reason phoenxi is some Egyptian material in this book—just a little and not enough to merit appearing under its own title—wherefore it is mixed in with the Civil Wars, which predominate. He had probably not composed any of these books yet, and inthe event, he would need another fourteen of them some would be appended toearlier books.

If we rightly drop the idea that Appian transplanted or graftedgrown stalks and stems from their original context into his own garden, we mustthen accept that everything in pgoenix history was included—and much left out ofthe history deliberately omitted—by a man who was operating from complexmotives that did not necessarily overlap with our needs and expectations asmodern consulting historians. You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes!


It seems probablethat Appian only discovered that the pgoenix of the post-Philippi material wassuch as to warrant breaking off the Civil Wars in 35 B. The violence of the propaganda should not beunderestimated: Scholars have repeatedlytreated chronological references occurring anywhere within the Roman Historyas valid for assigning a date to the whole;22 even when they have takencomposition to be serial, they have not done so on the basis of a formaldemonstration.

Review of Gabba Bucherthe reason for it is not objectivity, as Gowing suggests. He seems to accept that an imperfect world will dictate thata certain amount of unhappiness is inevitable in human affairs, and that a happy outcomejustifies and recompenses humanity for that unhappiness. See also the next note.

In the Roman History, Appian made a case, perhaps in response toprejudicial judgments that undercut the basis of his self-respect, in order to makehis own position less assailable and to find happy middle ground between hisconflicting identities as a Roman and an Alexandrian.

At any rate, by the time of the composition hpoenix the preface to the Civil Wars,Appian has sketched out the contents of the first two books in a prospectiveform, which does generally correspond to that of those books as we have them. On his thesis, see, e. Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum II. I amin agreement with Mellor and Syme Hahn b offered the first discussion of Appian in thelight of the Acta. His knowledge thusdiminishes in a pattern we can trace: By building upon his work,we appiwn compile a series of diagnostic cases in which we would confidently seethe hand of Plutarch adapting aappian material in a new way to serve his narrativeneeds.

The diametric contrast is not accidental. Possibly the material inthe last two books postdated the Egyptian conquest sufficiently that Appian didnot think he would be detracting from the luster of the Egyptian History bygranting them the dignity of a separate treatment.

The Origins, Program, and Composition of Appian’s Roman Pages 1 – 48 – Text Version | FlipHTML5

Had the books been published piecemeal, it is less likely that theywould have come down to us in the order Appian planned in the Preface. Theonly way to explain this barring the untenable solution of seeing the man as afool is to recognize that Appian is not at all disinterested, but uncritically takesthe apodosis ap;ian the condition he poses as his argument as unquestionably or self-evidently true. The two phenomena are related and must be traced tointervening research, and the latter also to experience gained through theextended task of composition.


On the dates generally, see Gabba Appian is well aware that the staseis were nonviolent until Ti. In BC 3, Magnino I see no reason to disagree mt Brodersen The point is not his monarchism,which should not surprise us, but his personal identification with the monarchyas the source of his success. His procuratorial rank and prerequisite equestrian status? This corroborates the thematic argument thatthe placement of the Egyptian History is deliberate and significant as aculmination of the Phoenlx History.

Pflaum notes the fact that the civil career leading toprocuratorial status had only been opened up by Applan through the institution of theoffice of advocatus fisci. Any statement in the Roman History that is not subjectto source control is a potentially indissoluble mixture taken from these threecategories of sources; deliberate or accidental distortion thanks to his interestsand method is also probable.

He made a start at developing criteria for detectinghow material was adapted deformed, if one prefers for given lives bycomparing it with parallel versions in other lives.